In a paper published in Science, the Global Ocean Oxygen Network (GO2NE) supported by IOC-Unesco, reviews the causes, consequences and solutions to low oxygen worldwide, in both the open ocean and coastal waters. The article highlights the biggest dangers to the ocean and society, and what it will take to keep Earth’s waters healthy and productive.

In the past 50 years, the amount of water in the open ocean with zero oxygen has gone up more than fourfold. In coastal water bodies, including estuaries and seas, low-oxygen sites have increased more than 10-fold since 1950. As the Earth warms, scientists expect oxygen levels to continue dropping in both of these zones. To halt the decline, the world needs to rein in both climate change and nutrient pollution, an international team of scientists assert in a new paper published January 4th in Science magazine.