Retrouvez ici tous les rapports de recherches du Smart City Institute recensés par date de publication.

Evaluation et monitoring des projets Smart City – Etude exploratoire des perceptions des communes wallonnes

  • AUTEURS : Audrey Lebas – Julio Diankenda – Nathalie Crutzen
  • Publié en février 2020
Au cours des dernières années, l’intérêt autour du concept de Smart City – ou Territoire Durable et Intelligent – n’a cessé de se développer. En Wallonie, cet intérêt se traduit notamment au travers de la stratégie Digital Wallonia et, en particulier, du programme Smart Région. L’attention autour de la thématique du suivi et de l’évaluation des politiques publiques et des projets Smart City s’est aussi développée, notamment via la publication de différentes recherches (ex. Giffinger, 2007) et projets (ex. CityKeys). En Wallonie, bien que le suivi et l’évaluation rencontrent un certain engouement de manière générale, il n’y a encore aucune publication qui se penche sur le suivi et l’évaluation spécifique aux projets Smart City. Avec ce rapport, nous souhaitons poser les bases de cette réflexion. Pour ce faire, nous formulons deux questions : quelle perception ont les communes wallonnes du monitoring et de l’évaluation des projets ? Quel est l’état d’avancement en matière de monitoring et d’évaluation des projets Smart City en Wallonie au niveau local ? Pour y répondre, nous avons interrogé 25 communes wallonnes. Deux conclusions générales se dégagent. D’une part, bien qu’il y ait un intérêt pour le suivi et l’évaluation de projets, il n’y a généralement pas de culture d’évaluation au sein des communes wallonnes en raison de freins structurels (ex. manque de temps) et contextuels (ex. jeux politiques). D’autre part, il n’y a actuellement que peu de mécanismes de suivi et d’évaluation des projets Smart City mis en place au sein des communes wallonnes et, lorsque c’est le cas, le projet n’est que rarement analysé dans son ensemble (ex. focalisation sur les résultats finaux).

Performance measurement in Smart Cities: an introductory report

  • AUTEURS : Audrey Lebas – Nathalie Crutzen
  • Publié en novembre 2019
Among the different debates surrounding Smart Cities, the topic of performance measurement has gained momentum. Several authors (e.g. Giffinger, 2007) and projects (e.g. CityKeys) have provided frameworks for municipalities to measure and monitor their Smart City performance. While these frameworks are useful and interesting, they often measure the performance of a city with an outside-in approach. This implies that performance is often measured based on pre-defined sets of indicators, which is an asset for comparing territories. In this report, we focus on a more managerial approach – also called an inside-out approach. We aim to guide municipalities to define their own performance measurement system that will allow them to improve their objectives and processes. Hence, we hereby propose an integrative model that is directly derived from the territory’s specificities. The model is constructed using an inductive approach built upon the existing literature on business performance management, public performance management and Smart City performance measurement & management. Note that, given the complexity of performance measurement, this report is only an introductory document. Therefore, the content is not exhaustive and will be completed in future publications from the Smart City Institute.

The case of the bankruptcy of Urban-Farmers in The Hague – GROOF analysis

  • AUTEURS : Nicolas Ancion, Guillaume Morel-Chevillet, Maria Rovira Val, Franz Schreier, Boris Solecki, Nicolas Zita, Nathalie Crutzen., M. Haissam Jijakli.
  • Publié en novembre 2019
In July 2018, one of the biggest European rooftop greenhouses (RTG) went bankrupt. Located in The Hague (Netherlands), this project, named UF002 De Schilde (UF), was built in 2016 and maintained by “Urban- Farmers”, a Swiss company which already made a pilot RTG based in Basel (Switzerland) in 2013. UF’s project produced tomatoes, eggplants, peppers and leafy greens on a 1 200 m2 RTG; and fish, tilapia species (120m3), just beneath on the 6th floor of the building. The project total cost was 2,7 M€ which corresponds to 2 250€/m2. Despite the project being developed by experienced urban growers, it had to close in 2018. Why did it close so quickly? What are the main reasons for this bankruptcy? Which mistakes have been made? What could be learned? Thanks to the documents available online and interviews that we could hold, we are going to see that the strategy, the internal disagreement, and the production techniques challenges, are all linked to the failure of this project. Indeed, the business model of this company, which looked very appealing on paper, didn’t reach economic viability.